Mucositis, stomatitis, shaggy fur, and diarrhea were typical side effects that were followed by signs of myelosuppression (predominant leukopenia) if the dose was stepped up. On the basis of these favorable properties, MTX-HSA was selected for further clinical development. We now report on the first Phase I study of MTX-HSA in cancer patients.

The neurological symptoms caused by tumor compression of the spinal chord disappeared. After another two injections, slight stomatitis (grade 2) reappeared. MTX-HSA treatment was continued, but intervals were prolonged to injections every second or third week.

CT scans showed a reduction of the pulmonary metastases and the intra-abdominal lymphomas of more than 80%. Until September 1998, 39 courses of MTX-HSA had been administered (cumulative MTX dose, 3430 mg; 123 mg MTX/month).

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Between 2005 and 2007, 215 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (67 with reflux associated with grade I or II esophagitis and 148 without esophagitis) were evaluated at the Department of Surgery, University Hospital Tor Vergata, Rome, and were included in the present study. The evaluations consisted of clinical interviews, endoscopy of the high digestive tract, esophageal manometry and pH monitoring. MTX-HSA in weekly courses. After five injections, MTX-HSA accumulated to 30 μmol/liter MTX-HSA.

Therapeutic Activity of MTX-HSA

Two hundred and fifty-two subjects with arthritis and allied conditions were recruited in two centres. One hundred and fifty-three consecutive FOI examinations were evaluated in centre 1. Ninety-nine outpatients were recruited randomly in centre 2. Inclusion criteria were symptoms in the hands and agreement for participation in the study.

At the time this article was completed, there had been no signs of tumor progression, the patient had reported well-being, and the MTX-HSA treatment was being continued (tumor response time, 30 months, ongoing). and then de-escalated to 50 mg/m 2 .

Reliable prospective data may be obtained from the large European Multicenter Trial o FK506 vs cyclosporin A in which ductopenic rejection occured in 1.4% and 6.4% of cases, respectively [5]. Chronic rejection has been diagnosed between 1 month and 1 year following liver transplantation [36]. The process of chronic rejection with FK506 treatment could not be confirmed by recent studies [5]. Therefore, retransplantation remains the principal treatment fot ductopenic rejection.

FOI showed a higher rate of positive findings than the other compared modalities. In an FOI sequence, three phases could be distinguished, with different sensitivity and specificity as well with different AR. FOI scores correlated significantly with assessment of disease activity (DAS28, US score, RAMRIS). In healthy subjects, FOI was negative in almost all joints. In 12 controls (6 healthy and 6 with arthralgia without any sign of inflammatory rheumatic disease; median age 30 years, range 21-56 years, 3 women), 360 joints were evaluated.

Prof. Dr. Gerd Nöldge’s research while affiliated with University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States and other places

This hypothesis can be proven only by histological examinations. In animal models, FOI has been shown as an appropriate method to identify inflammatory changes in arthritic joints.15 29 The histopathological findings of these studies showed early inflammatory changes in FOI-positive joints. AR of CE and MRI ranged from 63% to 87%, AR of CE and FOI ranged from 44% to 88% and AR of MRI and FOI ranged from 48% to 88%, depending on the parameter and subgroup (tables 3, 4, S1 and S2). The disagreement mainly resulted from the higher rate of positive findings in FOI. The highest agreement was found for P1, and the lowest was found for phase 2 (P2).


Even individuals without evidence of GERD may experience some mild symptoms that are commonly ascribed to GERD. GERD symptom thresholds derived in this study can be used to define the global symptom relief in patients with GERD. Subjects included 488 consecutive adults (mean age, 56.1 ± 8.9 years) who underwent transoral EGD for gastric cancer screening between February 2010 and March 2011. All procedures were performed by an endoscopist with 15 years of experience. Based on a questionnaire survey using the frequency scale for the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (FSSG), symptoms (dyspepsia and acid reflux symptoms) and the number of vomiting reflexes during EGD were recorded.

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