Factors resulting in higher odds of being a victim were students’ gender and psychosocial characteristics. Perpetration as a risk factor for victimisation (bully-victims) was found across bullying types. The results suggest that students play different participant roles as bully and victim, and that the two behaviours reinforce one another.

The students also completed a measure of mental health, the General Health Questionnaire, and answered questions to assess their frequency of physical complaints and perceived consequences of adverse treatment by peers at school. In general, peer- victimized girls reported a higher incidence of emotional distress and more perceived adverse health effects. Compared with ‘others’ , victims of both sexes indicated significantly worse mental and physical health. Among boys only, bullies consistently reported poorer health. Explanations for health effects and reported gender differences are discussed in relation to the consequences of stress engendered by peer victimization at school as well as suggested differences in the nature and implications of bullying behaviours employed by boys and girls.

Pupils being bullied sometimes or more often during the previous term had significantly higher odds of every psychosomatic symptom except sleeplessness, compared to pupils who reported that they were never exposed to bullying. The highest odds ratio was observed in analysis of feeling low.

Bullying is understood as a set of intentional repeated aggressive attitudes that characterize abuse of power of one student towards another. This work investigated correlations between the perception of family violence and the report of violence in elementary school students from São Paulo. 501 elementary school students from São Paulo responded to a questionnaire that consisted of six questions about family violence perception and seven questions related to the report of violence in school. Data was analyzed descriptively and a Pearson analyses was used to determine correlations between questions.

This paper reports on interviews with bullied youth, with the overall aims of describing adults’ responses to bullying from the victimized youth’s perspectives and discussing how the youth experienced these responses. The analysis comprised grounded theory, emphasizing the victimized youth’s points of view. When adults became aware of bullying, they responded in three ways; verbal, physical or avoiding/ignoring.

The decrease in the bullying scores was significant after the group intervention. This work presents advancements of the BCC model transition from CMIP5 to CMIP6, especially in the model resolution and its physics. Compared with BCC CMIP5 models, the BCC CMIP6 model shows significant improvements in historical simulations in many aspects including tropospheric air temperature and circulation at global and regional scales in East Asia, climate variability at different timescales (QBO, MJO, and diurnal cycle of precipitation), and the long-term trend of global air temperature. Many climate models have difficulties in properly reproducing climate extremes such as heat wave conditions. We use a regional climate model with different atmospheric physics schemes to simulate the heat wave events of 2003 in western Europe and 2010 in Russia.

  • An ensemble of model results relating to ozone concentrations in Europe in 2010 has been produced and studied.
  • As part of a survey service developed to assess bullying in schools, anonymous questionnaires were given to over 6,000 pupils in 17 junior/middle and seven secondary schools in the Sheffield LEA. The results are analysed in terms of frequencies of being bullied, and bullying others; year differences; gender differences; types of bullying; where bullying occurs; whether teachers and parents are informed; and attitudes to bullying.
  • This study reports the first prospective investigation of the early family experiences of boys who later emerged as both aggressive and bullied (i.e., aggressive victims) during their middle childhood years.
  • The atmospheric model ARPEGE is used with a stretched grid in order to reach an average horizontal resolution of 35 km over Antarctica.

Ozone vegetation damage dominates over the aerosol effects, leading to a substantial net suppression of land carbon uptake in the present and future worlds. Substantial differences exist in current estimates of agricultural ammonia emissions in China, hindering understanding of their environmental consequences.

It provides daily and 4-day forecasts and analyses for the previous day for major gas and particulate pollutants and their main precursors. These products are based on a multi-model approach using seven state-of-the-art models developed in Europe. An evaluation of the performance of the system is discussed in the paper. The representation of moist convection (thunderstorms and rain showers) in climate models represents a major challenge, as this process is usually approximated due to the lack of appropriate computational resolution.

(Solberg et al. 2007 ). An international study of 40 countries used a cut-off of 2-3 times per month for bullying victimization and perpetration, and found a prevalence of 3.6% for bully/victim status ( Craig et al. 2009). The prevalence of bully-victims was low and mainly declined across grades.

(Solberg, Olweus, & Endresen, 2007) . These children, referred to as bully victims, are considered to be distinct from those who are bullies or victims only.

The aim of this study was to explore the role of general self-efficacy (GSE) and bullying in relation to HRQOL. We specifically sought to study the prevalence of bullying, as well as the associations between both bullying and self-efficacy and HRQOL in a sample of adolescents.

gerd helen solberg

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