R&D BUS: Intramural R&D – London
They also provide the accounting system within which the institutional classifications and functional distributions might be applied. The website www.innovationdata.be provides a set of indicators describing the progress made by Belgium and its Regions in the field of innovation. The Federal has developed The website Planning Bureau at the request of the Belgian Science Policy Office, following the Federal Government’s decision to create a transversal technology platform. The percent of GDP dedicated to R&D is the most significant indicator which notifies about the level of economic innovation in a particular country. The table below published by Eurostat depicts the data concerning Venture Capital Investment (code VENTURE) which is expressed as GDP (Gross Domestic Product at market prices).
Derived indicator ‘Gross domestic expenditure on R&D as a percentage of GDP’ is one of the eight headline indicators of Europe 2020 strategy. R&D expenditure or in other words Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) is total intramural expenditure on R&D performed in the national territory during a specific reference period.
(2014). A model for the total intramural research and development (R&D) expenditure (GERD) by sectors of performance within the EU21.
The direct collection of R&D data through dedicated surveys has a distinct advantage in that the concepts and definitions used can align completely with those contained in the Frascati Manual. Administrative data sources (which may include both financial data from revenue agencies as well as other types of administrative sources, such as company records) may be used as another source of information for compilation of R&D data, if the concepts, definitions and coverage used by administrative data sources are close to those contained in the Frascati Manual sufficiently. The analysis of Gross Domestic Expenditures on R&D (GERD) published by Eurostat proves that the developed and rich countries dedicate the largest proportion of GDP to R&D. Unfortunately, Poland is at the end of the list almost. R&D data are used for estimation of capitalization of R&D expenditure in the national accounts.
R&D expenditure can be disaggregated by sector of performance, source of funds, field of R&D, type of research and type of cost. The Frascati Manual provides more details related to these breakdowns (what these breakdowns/classifications are, the purposes, including user needs, the main criteria that are applied, etc). This indicator is defined as the total intramural expenditure on research and experimental development (R&D) performed in the national territory during a specific reference period expressed as a percentage of national gross domestic product (GDP). The gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) indicator is used for international comparisons.
The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) provides a guide to conducting an R&D survey for countries starting to measure R&D (please find the link in the reference section below). In addition to summarizing main concepts and definitions from the Frascati Manual, this guide presents the relevant R&D indicators, addresses common issues encountered in data collection, provides a simple project management template, and proposes generic model questionnaires for the national government, Higher education, Business enterprise and Private non-profit sectors. Data for this indicator is collected through nationally representative R&D surveys primarily, which are conducted by the national statistical offices or relevant line ministries such as the ministry of science and technology.
This consists of the total expenditure (current and capital) on R&D by all resident companies, research institutes, university and government laboratories, etc. It excludes R&D expenditures financed by domestic firms but performed abroad. GERD is here expressed as a share of GDP. Nwaubani, J.C., Kapoulas, N., & Lepida, G.
R&D data are coherent with data obtained from the Innovation survey. Data are available for all users on the NSI website and on NSI information system INFOSTAT under the heading R&D, Information and Innovation Society. The statistical survey on research and development activity (R&D) provides internationally comparable information about the characterization of resources (expenditure and personnel) on research and development in Bulgaria. R&D personnel data is available in full-time equivalent (FTE), in head count (HC), as a % of employment and as a % of labour force.
Total intramural R&D expenditure (at current prices) (or gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD)) performed on the national/regional territory during a given year, in millions of euro and as a percentage of GDP. The indicator thus includes domestically performed R&D which is financed from abroad but excludes R&D funds paid abroad.
All expenditure is covered by it for R&D performed in the economy, including both current costs and capital expenditures for R&D. Slovenia is considered a leader in the region often. Its GERD/ GDP ratio rose from 1.63% to 2.59% between 2008 and 2013, albeit within a contracting GDP. Slovenia is also the only country in Southeast Europe where business enterprises fund and perform the majority of R&D. Although business R&D has stagnated in most other countries, R&D intensity has risen in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Serbia; as of 2012, it was close to 1% in Serbia (0.91), which was performing better in innovation surveys also.
GERD includes expenditure by business enterprises, government, higher education and private non-profit expenditure on R&D. GERD includes total intramural expenditure on R&D performed within a country, funded nationally and from abroad but excludes payments for R&D performed abroad.. funded and from abroad but excludes payments for R&D performed abroad nationally.} GERD tends to be under-represented in countries with a high % of SMEs and or with innovation in non-manufacturing sectors.
The core statistics and related indicators cover innovation activities, cooperation, development, expenditures and turnover. Each survey wave may additionally include other indicators like innovation objectives or information sources and analyze further particular aspects or drivers of enterprise innovation (eco-innovation in 2008, skills and creativity in 2010). Science, technology and innovation are important drivers for the Europe 2020 growth strategy.
However, even the more industrialized countries of Croatia and Serbia suffer from weak university-industry linkages. Strong growth in the true number of doctorate-holders has enabled researcher density to grow in most countries. The expenditure on intramural Research and Development increased in all the four sectors. In particular, the Business enterprises expenditure on R&D (BERD) registered a 7.5% increase on the previous year, the Higher education sector a +6.5%, the national government a +0.8% and the Private non-profit sector a +5.5%.
Venture Capital Investment (VCI) is the subset of private equity which is intended for investments in listed companies and firms which develop new products and technologies. VCI serves as the early stage funding (seed and start-up), or it is used for expansion of a venture (later venture). Data from national R&D surveys based on the Frascati Manual, OECD,