The geometry of spherical and tubular micromotors could be optimized to acquire good motility using a low-concentration fuel. Moreover, magnesium- and aluminum-incorporated micromotors move rapidly in water if the passivation layer is cleared in the reaction process. Metal micromotors demonstrate perfect motility in native acid without any external chemical fuel.
Superacids can permanently protonate water to give ionic, crystalline hydronium “salts”. They can also quantitatively stabilize carbocations. For example, HCl has chloride as its anion, so the -ide suffix makes it take the form hydrochloric acid. In the IUPAC naming system, “aqueous” is simply added to the name of the ionic compound. Thus, for hydrogen chloride, the IUPAC name would be aqueous hydrogen chloride.
Fifth, the hydrogen generated by reaction (1) is pure; therefore, it could be used in devices that require high purity, including some types of fuel cells for portable electronic devices or even for mobile applications. Finally, because the alkali is not consumed in the reaction and acts as a catalyst, it can be fully recovered. An overview example of how the cycle of utilizing aluminum scraps as a primary source of energy is illustrated in Figure 1. The characteristic properties of aqueous solutions of BrÃ¸nsted-Lowry acids are due to the presence of hydronium ions; those of aqueous solutions of BrÃ¸nsted-Lowry bases are due to the presence of hydroxide ions.
J. Alloys Compd., v. 397, pp.58-62 (2005). From the results presented, it is possible to conclude that aluminum is an interesting alternative to generate high purity hydrogen.
p. 40. ISBN 978-0-8247-4843-2. Archived from the original on 15 June 2016.
Superacids are acids stronger than 100% sulfuric acid. Examples of superacids are fluoroantimonic acid, magic acid and perchloric acid.
Aluminum is a precursor of many catalysts of several organic reactions, which is an interesting destination. were applied to different metallic samples, either foil (0.02 mm thick) or plates (0.5 and 1 mm thick), and reaction temperatures between 295 and 345 K were tested. The results show that the reaction is strongly influenced by temperature, alkali concentration and metal shape.
One side of the Mg particles is selectively coated by RBC membranes to asymmetrically generate hydrogen bubbles to endow micromotors with an average speed of 172 Î¼m/s. Micromotors are extensively applied in various fields, including cell separation, drug delivery and environmental protection. Micromotors with high speed and good biocompatibility are highly desirable. Bubble-driven micromotors, propelled by the recoil effect of bubbles ejection, show good performance of motility.
From the results above, we can verify that a greater hydrogen volume is produced in the same amount of time with a higher alkali concentration (and therefore, the reaction rate is higher). When one compares both alkalis to each other, one observes that NaOH has a tendency to speed up the reaction more effectively than KOH, particularly with a larger metal thickness.
Nevertheless, CH 3 COOH is both an Arrhenius and a BrÃ¸nsted-Lowry acid. The BrÃ¸nsted-Lowry definition is the most widely used definition; unless otherwise specified, acid-base reactions are assumed to involve the transfer of a proton (H + ) from an acid to a base. and are known as Arrhenius acids.
Moreover, enzyme-propelled motors are also proposed as a new strategy due to the good catalytic performance and native biocompatibility of enzymes [12,38]. Sulfuric and nitric acids can dissolve aluminum oxide, as can alkalis such as lye or caustic potash. Mixed with water, the alkali makes a caustic solution that dissolves the aluminum”s oxide coating, allowing the aluminum to react with water and generate heat.
Specific types of polyprotic acids have more specific names, such as diprotic (or dibasic) acid (two potential protons to donate), and triprotic (or tribasic) acid (three potential protons to donate). The pH of a simple solution of an acid compound in water is determined by the dilution of the compound and the compound’s K a .